Children Growing Into Adults In Marigolds By Eugenia Collier And The Whistle By Benjamin Franklin

When are kids considered adults? Logically, a child can become an adult at 18 or 21, but their intellectual development is different. Our legal system has a set age at which a person is considered an adult. Legislators determined that people over the age of 18 and 21 are entitled to adult privileges such as voting, drinking, etc. The fact that this is a rough estimate does not mean the adults are actually 18 or 21. Legislators are happy to accept a rough age estimate because they believe that people of this age group can handle adult responsibilities. Adulthood is when you no longer feel protected by your parents and begin to take responsibility for yourself. It is important to note that the most obvious sign of maturity comes when you start a family.

When are kids considered adults? In EugeniaCollier’s story “Marigolds”, the child realized that damaging the marigolds and destroying them was harmful. When the marigolds had been destroyed and trashed, she realized that. The text says, “I stood up and stared her down, and at that moment, childhood faded away and womanhood started”. The evidence proves Miss Lottie’s maturity grew after she destroyed the marigolds which she had spent hours on. Kids become mature when they reach adulthood. They start to respect and value their elders. In the story “The Whistle”, the narrator became an adult by giving a whistle to her grandmother after the incident. She ignored her grandmother’s warnings because she thought it was just a goat. The narrator gave her grandmother a whistle and said: “This is for Abuelita.” Sorry for what happened. I hope that you will forgive my mistake”. The textual evidence indicates that the narrator was deeply sorry for the mistake she made. When the grandmother needed help, the narrator would give her a horn. They are guided by ethics in their choices. It is possible to be more proactive than just reacting to the choices of life. The children in both ‘Marigolds and ‘The Whistle,’ realized their mistakes after they damaged the marigolds which the elderly lady spent a lot of time and effort on.

When can a child be considered an adult and begin to act maturely? Immature individuals automatically believe that they deserve everything good in their lives. Mature people recognize and appreciate the positive things that have happened to them. Self-control is also a trait of mature people. They are not haphazard and do not cause destruction. Mature people are not just concerned about their own interests, but those of others. Both characters in the stories above lacked maturity because they were irresponsible and did not pay attention to their surroundings.

Differences Between Ranks In The French Revolution Of 1848

The French Revolution of 1848 began the series of revolutions in Europe that occurred during 1848. These revolutions were meant to overthrow the old governments in Europe and create independent countries. The French Revolution ended Louis Philippe’s July Monarchy and established the French Second Republic. The June Days and the days of February were different. France was full of fights between different ranks.

There were many differences among the ranks of French society. There were several types of revolutionary: socialists, bourgeois and peasants. The socialists enjoyed a lot of popularity among the French working class. They wanted to see economic and societal reforms as well as the end of privately owned property. The liberal bourgeois wanted reforms in politics. The workers and bourgeois initially worked together to overthrow the monarchy. As soon as the goal had been achieved, many workers lost their jobs. Following this, the workers grew less friendly towards the bourgeoisie. Thus began the June days. Peasants also attacked workers, because they believed that socialists were planning to seize their land. The peasants were not happy. The days of February. A fascinating fact: Since political gatherings and demonstrations were prohibited in France, “fund-raising dinners” were held instead. This loophole allowed attendees to criticize current governments. The banquets were held from July 1847 until February 1848. When the government discovered what was going on, they banned them. In response, the populace revolted. On February 22, 1848, the first battle was between the populace and the Paris municipal guards. The current Prime Minister, Francois Guiizot, resigned the following day after this fighting. The revolting population gathered in front of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs when they heard of his resignation. Parisian Guards fatally shot 52 of those gathered in a tragic accident later that same day. Louis Philippe resigned sometime during the remaining battles. Two days later, February 26, 1848 was the date of the Second Republic’s election.

The June days followed. They took place between June 23 and June 26, 1848. The Second Republic, which was then in charge of France, wished to shut the National Workshops. The National Workshops provided a wide range of jobs to French citizens who were unemployed. The Second Republic was unable to sustain them, despite their success. Even taxes failed to help. Workers revolted after learning about Second Republic’s plans. The National Guard was ordered to put down the revolt. The National Guard’s achievements in these three short days are staggering. The National Guard killed or injured ten thousand workers, and deported another four thousand to Algeria. The situation wasn’t just bad for workers. The National Guard lost 1,500 soldiers, and the French Army also suffered a loss of 1,000. In only three days, liberals defeated radicals.

As we have seen in this essay the most popular choice for groups to defend their ideas is to revolt and fight. Peasants who attacked socialists, believing they were attempting to seize peasant lands or workers who revolted against the Second Republic in order to maintain their jobs are examples. Some of the ranks supported their ideals through peaceful means. France’s citizens held nonviolent banquets to criticize the government.

There were many differences among the ranks of the French Revolution in 1848. The old French government was eventually overthrown. Not all revolutions in Europe ended with a happy ending.

The Impact Of Manifest Destiny On The History Of The United States

Over its long and varied history, the United States of America experienced many important changes. Manifest Destiny was a major factor in the development of this country. John Louis O’Sullivan is credited with coining the term Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny was the belief of Americans that they were destined for expansion and to create their own country. Manifest Destiny influenced many aspects of our society. It influenced attitudes to patriotism.

The issue of expanding slavery was frequently discussed during the presidential election in 1848. Both sides of politics were concerned about the expansion of slavery. The new territories would have to decide if they wanted to be free states or slave states, which could impact the balance of power between the various states. The Missouri Compromise in 1820 was the catalyst for a national discussion on slavery’s expansion westward. But the Missouri Compromise was not applicable to those new states who did not take part in the Louisiana Purchase. This meant that slavery was still a major issue for the growing nation. The question of whether slavery would be allowed in the western states dominated the conversions to the frontier. North and South were opposed to the South’s plans for further abolition. The South had already begun to threaten secession. It was not just slavery that caused the debate, but also disagreements over the acquisition of the Southwest by the United States. California had been declared a state of freedom, while New Mexico and Utah became territories. They were then left to decide whether or not they would be slave states. Both territories eventually agreed. The idea that Manifest Destiny influenced the people to expand and discuss slavery. Manifest Destiny was responsible for the low-cost land sales in the West. This attracted many Farmers. Manifest Destiny led many farmers to expand westward and grow more crops. Some land was even free. The Americans also expanded westward to Oregon Territory and other parts of the coast. Mexico allowed Americans settle in Texas provided they adhered to its rules and customs. The Mexican American War of 1846 was a result of American settlers who chose to follow their ideals. Manifest Destiny was a major influence on America’s social, economic and political life. People were attracted by the idea of a new destiny for America which led to an exploding economy. The Mexican American War was sparked by tensions over slave and land rights.

Medicine And Religion In Ancient Mesopotamia

This paper discusses ancient Mesopotamia’s magical and divinatory practices, as well as how they interacted with religion and medicine at the time. This paper discusses the magical explanations of these ancient civilizations for various life events and natural disasters. For these people, rituals, practices, and beliefs that are now called magic were developed to help them overcome their challenges. However, witchcraft was not always involved. The amount of artifacts or tablets that address these topics demonstrates how popular and influential these beliefs have been in people’s lives, including their daily routines, their cultures, their jobs and different roles, as well as their decision making.

Because the ancient Mesopotamians did not understand the reasons for these phenomena, they attributed them to different gods/goddesses or mythical beings. They would predict the future to avoid the bad circumstances or try to satisfy the gods and repel evil. This led to the use of different kinds magic for solving their problems. In medicine, certain objects like figurines and gemstones were used. A cuneiform table (currently in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), dated mid-to late 1st Millennium BCE, shows hundreds of stones being used as a treatment or prevention for different medical problems due to their supposed magical properties. According to cuneiform documents, medical healers were present in Mesopotamia by the middle of 3rd century BCE. At that time, diseases were attributed to supernatural forces, such as demons, ghosts or gods. In order to repel evil spirits or please the gods, they sought out treatments. They were performed by healers of three different types: baru who used divination to practice medicine, ashipu who exorcised ghosts and asu who looked after the patients.

Maqlu is an example of how magic has been used in medicine. It translates as “Burning”. The anti-witchcraft ritual was performed to restore the health of a patient. The ceremony involved several sections, such as burning the statues of an unnamed witch, fumigating, washing the patient over the statues, etc. The ritual could also be seen as religious, with the participants hoping that the gods would show mercy by allowing them to burn the figurines.

Mesopotamian medicine shows that people thought ghosts caused a wide range of mental and physical problems. These health and disease issues could range from headaches and ringing of the ears to strokes and digestive problems. Mental issues like depression were also attributed to ghosts. Many of the symptoms that were attributed to ghosts were directly linked to the way the ghost had died. For example, if a patient was having trouble breathing, the assumption was that the ghost had drowned or died from suffocation. Each problem was given a prescription consisting of a recitation to the gods of power or actions that were to be taken to expel the ghost. Many gods, goddesses and deities were thought to possess healing powers. “Ninib”, “Gula”, and other gods in particular were seen as gods who could heal. Reteif (2007) states that those who played a healing role in society were highly respected, and they had varying ranks according to their importance. It was so important that Assyrian royal healers had to swear an oath. In light of all these facts, it’s clear that medicine was heavily influenced the theocratic regime, priestly associations, and religious beliefs.

Divination falls under magic, which is the term used in Mesopotamia. The diviners and temples in Mesopotamia would use divination and other astrological methods to avoid harm and try to predict future events. The fact that the prophecies of the kings, the upper classes, and not the lower classes, were used on a regular basis is noteworthy. Mesopotamian King’s Consulted their Priests and Diviners Before Making Important Decisions. If a king wanted to know if his gods approved of an invasion, he’d ask his diviners. This would ensure that his actions wouldn’t anger the gods. Then, the king would base his decision off the diviners’ response. This is because if the Gods weren’t happy with the plan of invasion, they might turn the tide against the king and cause him to lose. It is clear that divination relied heavily on religious beliefs and gods.

Assyrian divination can be divided into “omina imperative” and “omina inblativa”, which are, according to Cryer (1994), “those that simply come before the observer’s attention” and those “that the observer himself causes” respectively.

The diviners observed lunar eclipses as well as any other natural phenomenon. These types of events were used in Assyrian cultures to convey gods’ feelings or actions. In Assyrian culture, these types of events could convey prophecies, or the actions and feelings of gods.

Another way to receive prophecies involved extispicy. An animal is purified and slaughtered with specific methods. A diviner would examine and mark the liver after the autopsy. This would allow them to make predictions about the weather, upcoming or current health issues and politics. They would sometimes repeat rituals or extispicies if they did not like the results. This was mostly done to gain the favor of the king. This could mean that there was no clear logic behind the magic they used, other than hoping that after many sacrifices the gods might change their mind. This type of divination and magic was mainly used by the upper classes, as animals like sheep were very expensive and could not be sacrificed. In the ancient Babylonian period, diviners for the kings would regularly write reports that included omens. They also stated whether they were positive or not.

Celestial or astrological prognostications have been used in divination since ancient Mesopotamia. Assyrian rulers were regularly informed of these things, as evidenced by many reports dating back to the 8th century BCE. They included observations and interpretations about planets and stars as well quotes from “Enuma Anu Enlil”, which is a series on omens. Nabu Ahhe Eriba wrote a piece called “If Goat star produces mishu : the gods would forgive the Land, they would have mercy on the Land.” as an example.

Although extispicy was more accessible, it may still have been difficult for commoners to get astrological readings, because they did not know how to interpret the observations.

The kings were informed of reports about abnormal animal behavior, births and other strange events. The kings received these reports. These reports state that certain events are signs, with interpretations. These reports often cite “Summa izbu”, a list of omens, as a reference to help predict the future.

The practice of necromancy, which was also a magical method in Mesopotamia but less prevalent than other methods (was also a magic technique). Two versions of this list mention necromancers by different names. The necromancers used a variety of methods to summon or communicate with ghosts. A person could summon a spirit by reading an incantation, anointing their eyes, or anointing them. In another form of necromancy the necromancer used a skull to conjure up the ghost. The skull allowed ghosts to speak to the necromancer. The belief that ghosts exist and are afterlife is the basis for this method.

In order to get prophecies, and even blessings, from ghosts was the main purpose of practicing necromancy. The author of a letter to the king from the Assyrian late period wrote that they intended to give him a tablet containing a prophetic prophecy. Although the tablet has been translated in different ways, it mentions two Assyrians gods: Assur and Samas. The ghost of the queen who died also wishes that her descendants will “rule Assyria”. The fact that the Assyrians believed in gods in all matters and each one of them had different roles in various scenarios shows how they viewed gods as being involved in everything.

It is clear that magic and divination were important in the ancient Mesopotamian society. Different magical jobs, such as medical healers or diviners or necromancers are defined. Despite the fact that these solutions and techniques may appear superstitious today, they helped ancient Mesopotamia shape its culture and address many of the problems it faced. These ancient communities created religions as a way to explain the unknowable and developed magic solutions based upon their religious beliefs. Religious beliefs were also the basis for medical practices during that period. The divination practices were based on their belief that the gods controlled different aspects of the life and future events. Their beliefs about the afterlife also led them to practice necromancy, and believe that ghosts caused their illness.

I do not believe that religion, medicine, magic or divination were separate topics because they all share the same beliefs and practices.

This is all evidence of how advanced Mesopotamian society was. They were willing to develop knowledge and seek answers despite the limitations of the early civilization.

Christopher Columbus: Not An American Hero

The story of Christopher Columbus is told to every elementary student. Christopher Columbus sailed over the ocean and discovered America in the year 1492. The kids are told that he is a heroic figure. Columbus has an American holiday in his honor that is held on the 2nd Monday of every October to celebrate the anniversary. Columbus was a native of Genoa in 1451. This is what we now call Northwestern Italy. In Spain, he convinced Spain’s monarchy to finance an expedition to discover a new trading route to Asia (what Europeans at the time called Indies). In 1492, he crossed the Atlantic Ocean with three ships: Santa Maria, Pinta, Nina. He settled on an island near the Bahamas today. In the period 1492-1504, he made four voyages to South America and Caribbean. Columbus has been widely credited with helping to lay the foundations for European colonization. In school, children don’t get to learn about all the terrible acts that Columbus committed during his voyages. Christopher Columbus is not a heroic figure. Columbus was not the first European traveler to the New World.

Columbus’ first voyage was to seek a new, safe route from Europe to China, India and Japan. But he failed to do so. At the end 15th century, traveling from Europe to Asia was a very difficult task. The abundance of silk, gold and spices in Asia attracted many Europeans. There were many hostile armies on the way, and it was an arduous journey. Portuguese had solved this issue by using sea. The Portuguese sailed along the west African coast and around Cape of Good Hope. Columbus wanted a faster, safer way to Asia. So he sailed west across Atlantic Ocean. Columbus was able to land on a mysterious island in the Bahamas, which he named San Salvador. He thought he had reached an island off the coast of China but in fact he had landed on South America. Columbus called his native people “Indians”, as he thought he reached Indies. Columbus and the men travelled to Cuba and Hispaniola for several months. Hispaniola and Cuba were viewed as Japan by Columbus. Columbus returned to Spain in 1513 after establishing Villa de la Navidad on the island of Haiti. Columbus returned to the Americas on three other occasions, but never realized that his ship had gone in the opposite direction. Christopher Columbus is often credited with being the first European to land in America. However, Leif Erikson, an explorer from Norway, was the one who actually landed there. Leif Erikson of the Norse is considered the first European who reached North America. He did so around 500 years prior to Columbus. Leif Erikson is not known for his exact details, but historians do believe that he grew up in Greenland and was raised by Icelanders around 970 A.D. Erikson left Greenland for Norway in around 1000 A.D. Olaf I of Tryggvason converts him to Christianity. Olaf gave him the task of spreading Christianity in Greenland. Erikson lived according to one account. On the way back from Greenland his ships drifted and landed on the coasts in North America at a place named Vinland. A second account claims that Erikson learned of Vinland through Bjarni Hejlfsson. This seamen is believed to have been the first European who saw the east coast. This account implies that Erikson intentionally sailed into North America. Erikson first landed in Helluland, a barren, icy area which he named. Baffin Island today is thought to have been this region. Then he went on to another region called Markland. This is thought to be central Labrador in Canada today. Erikson returned to Greenland after building houses in Vinland. Over the years, there has been much debate about Vinland’s exact location. Helge Andersen and Anne Stine were the Norwegian explorers who discovered remnants of Viking settlements in Canada’s northernmost province of Newfoundland during the 1960s. The excavations made what was once a largely fictional story into reality after a period of time. The Vikings are the first Europeans who set foot on the New World.

Christopher Columbus’ treatment of indigenous people he met on his journeys is one of the most controversial aspects of his life. Columbus first landed in the Bahamas on an Arawak-inhabited island. Columbus’ crew was greeted by gifts the first time they landed. The Arawaks welcomed the Europeans with open arms. He mistakenly interpreted their generosity as weakness or ignorance, and took some natives into his army to gain information about the country. Columbus promised Spain, in return to fund his journeys, that he’d bring back spices and gold. He received ten per cent of profits as well as the governorship and noble title of the new land. He tried to get rich by using natives. Columbus took prisoners of the Arawaks who wore gold earrings in their ears. They would then take the gold to the gold source. After sailing from Hispaniola to Cuba, Columbus discovered gold in rivers. He was also given a gold-plated mask by the local chief. Columbus was led to believe, incorrectly, that there were gold fields in the New World. He continued to use natives to search for gold during his entire journey. Many of the natives who were with him on his first voyage died during the trip. Columbus’s sailors, who stayed behind at Villa de la Navidad in Spain, used children and women for sexual exploitation and as slaves. Columbus’ next voyage was to find gold and more slaves. He ordered all Haitians over 14 to collect gold every 3 months. The copper tokens that were put around the necks of those who collected gold were provided. Natives without tokens were usually left to bleed until death. The Europeans took natives as slaves after they realized that there was no gold left to be found. The natives had to work so hard they eventually died. Columbus forced the natives into Christianity. Columbus’ expeditions to New World brought diseases such as measles and smallpox to the natives. These diseases were already familiar to Europeans, who had developed immunity. The Europeans may not have intended it, but the diseases decimated indigenous populations.

Columbus remains a popular hero even though his controversy is more widely publicized. The Americas were discovered by Columbus accidentally, which allowed Europe new land to be settled and expanded. It is true that other European explorers could have reached the Americas sooner than Columbus because of the technological advances in Europe at the time. Colonization of America had terrible consequences for natives who lived there for years before Columbus arrived. Columbus’ biggest achievement was to start the Columbian exchange. The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of people, goods, livestock, ideas, and diseases between the New World and Europe. This exchange had many positive outcomes. This exchange helped to improve the economy and agriculture of people around the world by introducing new livestock and foods. Also, new technologies and ideas were spread across the globe. This helped advance society. Columbian Exchange also brought about negative effects. In order to produce the new foods that were being developed, slave labor was needed in greater numbers. Both the New World people and Europeans contracted diseases.

Christopher Columbus wasn’t the hero children think he was. Columbus’ voyages were funded by Spain to find a new route to Asia. However, he never did. He falsely claimed to have succeeded and told the Spanish court so. Columbus didn’t even discover Americas in Europe as is commonly believed. Leif Erikson is credited with being the first Norseman to land in America, five centuries earlier than Columbus. In the 20th century, evidence was found that proved the Vikings were first Europeans who reached the New World. His moral character is the last thing to disprove Columbus’s heroism. During his journeys, he was cruel to the natives he encountered. He brutally captured many natives. Forced them to convert. Cut off their limbs if they could not locate the gold. Introduced a wide range of deadly diseases. Christopher Columbus is not considered a hero in school. By learning about his negative acts, students will be able to view him differently. Our understanding will be improved.

Slaves’ Experience On The Middle Passage

The Middle Passage slaves endured an incredibly long journey, lasting between one and three-months. As they were crammed in with other enslaved people, they didn’t want to go on this journey. Slave-owners treated them as worthless, unpaid animals. They then debarked the ship. Slavery on the Middle Passage is a horrible experience.

The Middle Passage was a horrible experience for slaves. Slavery was a horrible experience for slaves who were forced to work on another continent. The slaves didn’t know where they would end up, what they might face, or whether they would still be alive. Slave were dropped below the deck to be exposed to the horrible scene that was waiting for them. The slaves had their faces branded as if they were animals. They were also completely dehumanized. It was impossible to be comfortable in the least. The air was scarce. Fresh air was scarce. The air was so crowded that it almost made you suffocate. As soon as the humidity from the slaves’ sweat and tears began to build up, the air became unsuitable to breathe. The slaves were beginning to feel desperate and wished for death. It seemed like the only way they could escape what they had been experiencing. When they had the opportunity, many slaves drowned by jumping into the sea. Many slaves drowned their own deaths, but those who didn’t were flogged. The slaves were bound to get sick. Many died of sickness. Sick slaves have been thrown out to sea in some instances so as not to make other slaves sick. Sickness caused people to refuse food and lose appetite. The sailors would punish the slaves if they didn’t eat. Some slaves tried to starve to death.

Slavery was punished by cutting, whipping, and flogging slaves. The slaves were not taken care of and would have died if they had been. But the aim was to sell the slaves, and a dead slave would reduce their profits. Slave were terrified and feared sailors. The slaves’ suffering seemed to never end, but it would soon be over. Finally, the ship arrived on Barbados. Slavery was no longer a source of fear, death or sadness for the slaves. It was a joy for them to finally leave the ship, breathe fresh oxygen and be free from sickness. It was a relief to finally be free. Merchants and Planters boarded boats to examine slaves, to determine if they could work. Then they told them to move onto the land. They began to fear again that they might be eaten. After that, slaves went back to the deck, where they experienced all the horrors of being below deck. Slave were packed again for the journey to land. The architecture at Barbados was different than what the Africans used to build houses. Instead of using wood, bricks were used instead. Slaves believed whites could ride horses by performing magic. Slavery auctions and other horrors followed soon after. They would no longer have to endure being on an overcrowded, disgusting ship full of slaves. Instead, they would be separated from their friends and families.

It was a very sad experience for the slaves to never see their masters again. They were monsters to the slaves, as would be anyone who was separated from family and friends and forced to work hard and live a miserable life without pay. They were happier than on a boat, but no one knew where they lived or if they still survived. The slaves’ long and dreadful voyage was over, but they now faced a new life of misery. Money was valued more than people. Especially if the slaves were only considered as property.

Slavery was horrific for slaves. They were dehumanized completely and exposed to illness. Slaves were bundled together in fear and had no idea that they would be harmed. After arriving on land, slaves thought they had arrived in paradise. But soon the horrors of separation from loved ones returned. Slave life was a sad one for slaves. Middle Passage – a terrible experience.

One Word For All Female Emotions In Aeneid

The Mourning Bride by William Congreve, written 1600 years after Vergil’s Aeneid, is a popular paraphrase of this saying. The quote is still a reference to Aeneid, which explores the relationship between female characters’ emotions and furor. Vergil frequently portrays female characters in the epic as being possessed with furor. The Aeneid shows females with a wide range of emotions. These include love, fury, and prophetic feelings. The Aeneid’s selection of mortal women reveals the many meanings and the power of “furor” over women.

The Sibyl’s prophetic fury is the source of both her knowledge and her power. The “awful Sibyl”, who is ultimately captured by a frenzy, contrasts starkly with “pious Aeneas”, who has a calm and collected manner. Sibyl does not have to be frightened by the prescient furor that makes her powerful and frightening. The furor that fills the virgin Sibyl manifests itself in several ways; “[H]er face / and color alter suddenly; her hair / is disarrayed; her breast heaves, and… [her] wild / heart swells with frenzy” (6.67-70). Fury can be seen in the Sibyl as she becomes more powerful. Her voice and face change, while her hair and breast swell. She initially accepts Apollo using her but later fights against his power. She hasn’t yet surrendered to Phoebus. “She rages in her cave, trying to drive the god out of her breast.” (6.109-112). Phoebus no longer controls the Sibyl’s fury. It is easy to understand this change, especially after Apollo’s treatment his prophetess. The god “tires off her raving voice” and shapes her “wild spirit” with crushing force (6.112-1113). Fury has a profound effect on the Prophetess Sibyl’s body and mind, even though she initially seeks it out.

Dido is initially enamored of the passion that drives her, just as the Sibyl was. The Queen decides to share her feelings with Anna rather than suppressing or ignoring them. She confides “Aeneas’s the only man who can make me feel, that is to say, change my heart.” I know all the signs (4.25-27). Dido, in her conversation with Aeneas’ sister confidante rationalizes Aeneas’ growing attachment. Anna’s part is to only increase the Queen’s passion. Anna’s words fueled Dido. Hope burned her doubt away, destroyed her guilt” (4.74-75) Like the Sibyl’s anger, Dido’s fury becomes uncontrollable. She pleads with Ceres Phoebus Bacchus Juno and the other higher powers to bring Aeneas back into her life. Dido’s frenzy no longer brings her the pleasure she had previously derived.

How can altars and vows help someone to fall in love with passion?

The flames devour her marrow.

Silent wounds still linger in her breast.

Unhappy Dido burns. The city is ablaze.

She is a frenzied woman.

…[I]nsanely, she searches out the same banquet.

Once more she asks to be able to hear Troy’s trials.

The teller is still unable to get her off his lips. (4.86-91,102-104)

Juno, upon seeing Dido in her state, used her power to bring Aeneas, Dido, and a storm together. The decadence of living together for a period of time is pleasing to both lovers. But Jupiter will not let Aeneas leave his path to founding the Romans.

Dido is enraged by Aeneas’s secret departure, and her zeal turns to rage. Dido is once more consumed by hysteria when she discovers that her lover has left in secret. This frenzy becomes a furious anger towards Aeneas and heaps threats on him. She replies:

I hope you’ll drink all of your troubles to the bitter end

Many drownings cry out among sea rocks

Dido’s name is Dido. When absent,

I shall hunt you out with blackened flambes…

You will be punished if you are depraved. (4.523-527,530)

The furor that was characterized by Dido up to this point as passionate, loving, and angry is transformed once more. The Queen’s frenzy is transformed into a raving lunacy when she commits suicide. Dido, by tricking her sister and assembling Aeneas’ clothing, sword, other personal items that are related to Aeneas affair, creates a pile. Dido, once the pile of objects is complete, takes her own life by using the sword. But death comes slowly, because “she was miserable and died before her time” (4.958-961).

Dido’s mania was responsible for her inability to cope with Aeneas leaving. Vergil’s viewpoint is clear when Dido dies for her knowledge that mutable mania, with all its powerful and intense passions, cannot be controlled. Dido is at her mercy, and she can’t control the ever-changing fury.

Amata the queen of Laurentum behaves in a similar way to Dido. She is swept up by passionate love, furious fury, and raving mania, and must face the consequences to herself and her realm. Amata does not wish to be swept up in frenzy, as Dido did. Juno calls on Allecto in an attempt to prolong Aeneas’ struggle and to create a war with Turnus, the daughter’s promised lover. “Then she cast a snake from her blue gray hair deep in Amata’s breast to make her mad and set up a war with her entire household.” (7.458-461).

Amata’s fury is compared metaphorically to “an infection” that “poisons her body and mind” (7.468). Amata immediately displays emotional turmoil. She shares the same physical symptoms as Dido and Sibyl. The delirium, which “entwined [Amata’s] bones in flame,” also caused “the force/of flame to spread throughout her breast.” (7.469-471). Allecto’s delirium causes the queen to have a fight with her husband, Latinus. Latinus finally gives in after Allecto has made her mad throughout the whole city. Her behavior is barbaric.

She pretends / to have Bacchus with her; running into the woods

Amata is now trying to cause a bigger scandal

It is madness that will get worse. She hides the daughter

In the mountains of leafy trees, Trojans steal from you

The wedding torch is held back. (7.511-516)

The deadly consequences for soldiers fighting in a war following Queen Amata’s poisoning are tragic. Fury has a different effect on Dido or Sibyl who are willing to accept it, yet do not inflict pain on others. Queen Amata’s death is a result of Juno’s vindictiveness. She also caused many of the battles deaths that accompanied Aeneas conquering her kingdom. Amata, upon realizing that Turnus’ troops will not be victorious, “cries out/that she is guilty/is the source/of their misfortunes”, (12.805-807).

She is unable to commit suicide because she believes that Turnus has died, despite having promised him “Whatever you want me to do I will do for you”. (12.85). “[I]n screaming frenzy she is ready/to die, tears her purple garment and fastens/a ugly death noose to a high beam” (12.808-810). Queen Amata may not be as afflicted by fury as Dido is, but the way Vergil forces it upon her is an important point.

Fury has a different effect on women in the Aeneid. Fury causes violent visions for the Sibyl while it stirs up fervent feelings of love or rage in Queen Dido. It is clear that women are unable to control the frenzy they experience once it begins, and this can even lead to death. This portrayal of fury emphasizes women’s weakness and their ability to be controlled.

Vergil believes passionately that furor and its many manifestations cannot be conquered. While it’s impossible to deny how furious the Aeneid women are, it’s not because they were scorned before, as Congreve said, but due to furor’s omnipotent powers.

Dominoes In Ancient China

Today, you’ll learn about Dominoes from Ancient China. It is easy to explain Dominoes. They are tiles that have two sides and numbers on each side. They can be used to create complex games, even though they look simple. It is hard to know when dominoes originated, but historians agree that it was in China. Many believe they were invented in the first 100 years of human history. Chinese immigrants to America claimed that Hung Ming, a romantic hero and inventor of the tiles, invented them.

Fan Lai and Keung Tai Kung, two Chinese leaders, are also believed to have invent dominoes. According to historical documents and printed sources, the tiles were made by a statesman. He presented them in 1120, but they weren’t widely used until many more years later. Tiles were finally introduced to Europe in the early 18th-century. This was after two dice games. Traditional Chinese dominoes were made up of at least 21 pieces. This is because there are 21 combinations possible when you throw two dice. Although some tiles were duplicated, each set had a different number of tiles. Modern sets have 28 pieces. One tile has no dots while six have only one side of dots. Some sets include embossing art and intricate design. These domino tiles were not first made in China.

According to University of Waterloo, the “Western Dominoes” are only around for 250 years. China’s dominoes, however, are not much different. They are flat, two-sided, and look almost the same. The tiny indentations called “pips”, however, are of different colors. These tiles are smaller than Western sets. Although the original dominoes were made of bone, many can now be made of plastic, cardboard, or silver. Many of them are made from composite materials.

The tiles were first called “dominoes” by the Venetians. This was based on a type of mask known as a “domini,” which many Venetian Carnival-goers wore. The masks were made of white with black dots. They were named after the Dominus, Dominican monks who wore black and/or white hoods.

The Great Depression In The Us: Causes And Solutions Applied

October 1929 was the worst day in US history. It lasted ten years and brought down the whole economy. The whole economy was affected by this, including hunger and unemployment. The US economy enjoyed a period of great innovation, technological innovation and a changing lifestyle before the Great Depression. There was boom in the economy and prosperity.

The Wall Street crash wiped out millions and displaced them all. The next few years saw a drop in consumer spending, investments and employment. Inflation also dropped and companies were forced to lay off employees. The depression was at its peak in 1933. Main Causes of Great Depression

Stock Market Crash: On October 29, 1929, Wall Street in New York collapsed so severely that investors’ shares exploded into the air. The New York Stock Exchange saw nearly 16,000,000 shares traded in one day. Investors lost millions of dollars as a result. The total amount of currency in circulation was greater than the amount of money borrowed. To pay the loan, the owner of the shares had to sell them if stock prices fell below the amount borrowed money. As a result, prices began to drop more and the stock market crashed.

Bank failures: More than 9000 banks collapsed between 1930 and 1940. Uninsured bank deposits led to people losing their savings and banks failing. Due to uncertainty about the economic environment, banks that survived stopped making loans were less willing to do so. This resulted in a decline in spending.

All classes experienced a decline in their purchasing power: Individuals from all walks of life stopped buying items after the stock market crash. This resulted to a reduction and decrease in production. People lost their job. They could not pay the bills for the goods they had purchased. As inventory accumulated, it became more difficult to sell. The unemployment rate grew to 25 percent.

American Economic Policy: In 1930, due to the failure of businesses, the Government established the Smoot-Hawley Tariff to support domestic producers. Imports became less competitive due to this tax. This caused the loss of foreign exchange to be at its lowest point.

Drought Conditions: Although the Great Depression was not directly caused by drought, the Mississippi Valley’s 1930 drought was so severe that farmers could not pay their taxes or owe any debts. Instead they were forced to sell their farms and make no profit. This region was nicknamed “The Dust Bowl”.

Steps to Overcome Great Depression Franklin Roosevelt was elected President in 1933. His inaugural address was delivered on March 4, 1993 at Washington’s Capitol Plaza. “First ofall,” he said, “let us assert our firm belief that the sole thing we need to fear” and promised that he would quickly respond to the “dark reality of the moment.” Many people felt confident that their new president was bold enough to address the nation’s problems. The president announced a four-day bank holidays to prohibit people from withdrawing funds from insolvent banks. Roosevelt’s Emergency Banking Act (reorganization of banks, closure of insolvent banks) was approved by Congress on March 9. Three days later in his first “fireside conversation”, the president exhorted Americans to save their money and return them to banks. By the end, nearly three quarters were open again.

Roosevelt decided to implement a new series of social and economic policies in response to the Great Depression. The Works Progress Administration (WPA), which was the main relief agency under the second New Deal, was designed to provide work and not welfare. The WPA allowed the construction of roads, schools, buildings, and airports. Federal Theater Project was home to actors, painters as well musicians and writers. The National Youth Administration provided part-time work for students, set up training programs, and offered assistance to youth who were unemployed. Although only three million were jobless in the WPA, it helped 9 million people before it was abandoned by the government in 1943.

The Decline Of Louis Xiv’s Authority After 1685

Louis XIV had one of his main goals: to preserve his royal authority through his reign and to ensure his absolutism. Many successes were achieved during his reign. He was able to manage the nobility and make them perform the levers and couchers until his passing. There were some failures, however. Huguenots among other religious minorities became an increasing problem to him and armed soldiers had to be placed inside their homes to convert them.

As we have already mentioned, the levers and couchers were key to his authority. These were ceremonies during which Louis was made to get out of his bed and get in bed (morning/night, respectively). As the nobility fought for positions in these ceremonies, it shows the power he had over them. The position held in these ceremonies would indicate how much favour a noble will have with king. Those holding the highest ranking positions in these ceremonies would also show how well they were able to help the king get up and go to bed. This was because he was being controlled by Madame de Maintenon in all aspects of his religious mind-set. He also had to surrender his power and authority through the bull Unigenitus, which was used to allow him to persecute Jansenists in order for him to have his way with those in his own country. Louis failed because he lost control of religious matters within his country and gave it to the Pope from Louis and Gallicans. It was an inverted version of his original policy.

Some might argue that Unigenitus was successful in maintaining authority because it legitimized Louis’ reasons for persecution of Jansenists. He had the Pope perform Louis’ will by calling them heretics. This would have meant that his relationship to the Pope was much better and that it would be easier for other Catholic countries to oppose him. This view, however, is less convincing.

Louis’s failure to keep authority in religion was also evident with the Huguenots. They became a growing problem throughout his reign. Louis’ initial success in eliminating the Huguenots was matched by his more moderate policies like paying them conversion (Casse de Conversions), which used money from vacant bishoprics. They were also prevented from joining certain professions and closed their schools and churches. 750,000 Huguenots converted between this and 1800.

Louis wanted to accelerate the time they would disappear so he repealed the Edict of Nantes. This made their religion illegal and led to 200,000 people fleeing to other Protestant countries like the Holy Roman Empire or the Dutch. This was a terrible failure. Because heresy survived, the Huguenots were now able to have the sympathy from other nations. France’s economic enemies also gained their abilities, skills, and knowledge of France. France’s authority was diminished since Louis was now being called a dictator/tyrant/despot – both by the Pope as well as other Catholic kings. France suffered a lot long-term because these were also the people leading the revolution against Louis XVI’s Ancient Regime in France.

Louis XIV had a huge decline in authority after 1685. He relinquished control to Madame de Maintenon but also gave the power to a small religious group. However, it can be argued that in non-religious/foreign matters that Louis did maintain at least a certain degree of control since his people would at least fear him and continue to perform the Lever and Coucher.